Climate Change and K12

The Climate Change Commission lead by the Office of the President of the Philippines, is an independent and autonomous agency with the same status as that of a national government. It is the sole policy-making body of the government tasked to coordinate, monitor and evaluate the programs and action plans of the government relating to climate change. It formulates the National Framework Strategy on Climate Change (NFSCC), National Climate Change Action Plan (NCCAP) and guidelines for Local Climate Change Action Plan(LCCAP). President Duterte’s policy to eliminate poverty and empower the Indigenous and poor people alike, is expected to transform this agency’s agenda into real action.

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The Philippines ratified the Kyoto Protocol in 2003 by Executive Order No. 320. The President of the Philippines designated the Department of Environment and Natural Resources as the National Authority for Clean Development Mechanism, the ambition of which is the reduction in carbon and methane emissions (greenhouse gases).

The Kyoto Protocol and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) regulates the creation and implementation of projects which prevent and or absorb greenhouse gases. Reforestation and forestry care have the capacity to reduce and sequester carbon emissions, from which auditable Carbon Credits can be developed for re-sale in compliance with the provisions of UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol.

The Philippines Government by its participation in the Clean Development Mechanism is enabled to attract new forms of foreign investment capital, knowledge, learning and education, technology transfer and opportunity for socioeconomic benefits in areas of employment, commerce, employment and business growth, environmental and social health, agro-food and farming. It is enabled to attract increasing technological transfer and allied manufacturing opportunities with the cumulative effect of implementing a systematic pathway for the creation and sale of auditable Carbon Emission Permits.

The Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) is charged with formulating and developing the national Clean Development Mechanism policies, criteria, indicators, standards, systems, procedures and evaluation tools for the review of CDM projects and promulgate rules and regulations to manage these functions.

The DENR is charged with assessment and approval of CDM projects for submission UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol. It monitors the implementation of the projects and carries out functions related to and in pursuance of the development of CDM projects. The National Authority (the DENR) was authorized to create Technical Evaluation Committees necessary for the efficient and effective implementation of its functions. While the Department of Energy takes the lead role in the evaluation of energy-related projects; all departments, agencies and instrumentalities of the Philippines Government provide the necessary support and assistance to the National Authority.

Pursuant to the Climate Change Act of 2009 (RA 9729), the Climate Change Commission is an independent and autonomous body with the same status as that of a national government agency. Attached to the Office of the President the Commission is the sole policy-making body of the government tasked to coordinate, monitor and evaluate the programs and action plans of the government relating to climate change.

The next Climate Change Commission Board will probably include

  1. Secretary of the Department of Agriculture
  2. Secretary of the Department of Energy
  3. Secretary of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources
  4. Secretary of the Department of Education
  5. Secretary of the Department of Foreign Affairs
  6. Secretary of the Department of Health
  7. Secretary of the Department of the Interior and Local Government
  8. Secretary of the Department of National Defence-Chair of the National Disaster Coordinating Council
  9. Secretary of the Department of Public Works and Highways
  10. Secretary of the Department of Science and Technology
  11. Secretary of the Department of Social Welfare and Development
  12. Secretary of the Department of Trade and Industry
  13. Secretary of the Department of Transportation and Communications
  14. Director-General,National Economic and Development Authority, Chair Philippine Council for Sustainable Development
  15. Director-General of the National Security Council
  16. Chairperson of the National Commission on the Role of Filipino Women
  17. President of the League of Provinces
  18. President of the League of Cities
  19. President of the League of Municipalities
  20. President of the Liga ng mga Barangay
  21. Representative from the Academe
  22. Representative from the business sector
  23. Representative from non-governmental organizations

Local Government Units (LGUs)

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Local Government Units; Climate Change Action Plan

LGU’s develop climate change action plans consistent with Local Government Codes, the Framework and the National Climate Change Action Plan.

  1. LGUs regularly update their action plans to reflect changing social, economic, and environmental conditions and emerging issues.
  2. LGUs furnish the Commission with copies of their action plans and amendments, modifications and revisions, within 1 month from adoption.
  3. Local chief executive appoints the person responsible for the formulation and implementation of the local action plan.
  4. LGUs mobilize and allocate personnel, resources and logistics to implement their action plans.
  5. LGUs are authorized to appropriate Internal Revenue Allotments to implement local action plans notwithstanding contrary Local Government Codes.
  6. Barangays consult with local governments to prioritize climate change actions.

The LGUs can appropriate funds for climate change adaptation programs which include education, training, capacity building, public awareness and energy solutions.

Climate Change Adaptation and K12 Education

The Australian and Philippines Governments’ partnered to reform Philippines education by increasing the 10 year school cycle to 12 (K12) to raise educational standards. The two Governments are working to promote education, prosperity, economic growth and stability. The Philippine Government priorities are to improve governance, combat corruption and reduce poverty. Australia assisted the reformation and during the 2014 Philippines-Australia Ministerial Meeting, they agreed on the priorities which are:

  • Partnering for education reforms
  • Enhancing the foundations for sustained economic growth
  • Promoting disaster preparedness
  • Improving conditions for peace and security
  • Building stronger institutions for inclusive development.
 2014 ducation reform meeting Australia’s Foreign Affairs Minister Julie Bishop (second from right), and Bro. Armin Luistro FSC, Philippines’ Education Secretary, confirm arrangements for Basic Education Sector Transformation (BEST) Program. Also present are H.E. Bill Tweddell, Australian Ambassador to the Philippines (right), and Benhur Abalos, Mayor of Mandaluyong. 

This is a positive initiative towards climate change mitigation because the future generations will be academically empowered to take responsibility and continue climate change adaptation and mitigation efforts.  Currently, only around 19 per cent of Filipino children complete schooling to K10 level, but this new partnership anticipates that by 2019, around eight million students will be enrolled in about 19,000 schools. The partnership will improve teaching quality, curriculums and assessments with students obtaining access to high quality learning materials. The partnership also provides support training programmes for 225,000 teachers and it will build over 1,000 classrooms. The workforce will be up skilled and Scholarships will be awarded for students to study in Australia.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

History

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is the leading international body for assessing the most recent scientific research on climate change. The IPCC is acknowledged by governments around the world as the most reliable source of advice on climate change.

The IPCC was established in 1988 to provide the world with a clear scientific view on the current state of knowledge on climate change and its potential environmental and socio-economic impacts. As an intergovernmental body, the IPCC is open to all member countries of the United Nations (UN) and the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO); currently the IPCC has 195 member countries.

The role of the IPCC

The IPCC reviews the most recent scientific, technical and socio-economic research produced worldwide relevant to the understanding of climate change. The IPCC does not undertake new research, but examines published and peer-reviewed literature to develop a comprehensive assessment of scientific understanding which is published in IPCC Assessment Reports. The scientific and consensus nature of IPCC assessments mean they provide a vital reference and evidence base which underpins government policy decisions.

Structure of the IPCC

The IPCC is organised in three Working Groups and a Task Force that focus on specific aspects of climate change:

  • Working Group I − The Physical Science Basis of Climate Change, Working
  • Group II − Climate Change Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability, Working
  • Group III − Mitigation of Climate Change, and
  • The Task Force on National Greenhouse Gas Inventories.

The main role of each of the Working Groups is to summarise the state of knowledge on climate change in the IPCC Assessment Reports. The Task Force on National Greenhouse Gas Inventories helps participating countries calculate and report their emission of greenhouse gases. Each of these Working Groups and the Task Force is led by Co-Chairs and supported by a Technical Support Unit (TSU).

The IPCC Plenary is the main body of IPCC members. Plenary Sessions are held approximately once a year, and bring together hundreds of officials and experts from relevant government departments, agencies and research institutions from member countries and from observer organisations such as multilateral and non-government organisations. At these sessions, the Plenary accept, adopt and approve the IPCC reports and make major decisions on governance, procedural and financial issues.

Review of IPCC Assessment Reports

To ensure that they are credible, transparent and objective, the IPCC reports must pass through a rigorous two-stage scientific and technical review process. The IPCC review processes involve broad expert participation, rigorous oversight, and high levels of transparency. The main stages of the IPCC review process are the review of the ‘first-order draft’ (FOD) by scientific experts, the review of the ‘second-order draft’ (SOD) by experts and governments and the government review of the final draft of the summary for policymakers.

Comment can be submitted to the IPCC during each review and chapter authors are required to consider each comment and explain how comments are incorporated in the reports to independent review editors. After taking into account the expert and government comments, the final drafts are presented to plenary for acceptance of their content.

Review Process Chart of the IPCC Assessment Reports

 

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IPCC Assessment Reports

The IPCC publishes Assessment Reports every six to seven years, with the IPCC First Assessment report published in 1990. The Assessment Reports are written by the three Working Groups, and each chapter is produced by a Lead Author team, under which content is coordinated by a Coordinating Lead Author. Contributing Authors are also used to provide more technical information on specific subjects covered by the chapter. Many more scientists and experts from all over the world contribute to the preparation of the Assessment Reports as Review Editors and expert reviewers; none of them are paid by the IPCC.

Authors for each IPCC Assessment Report are selected from nominations received from governments and participating organizations or identified because of their special expertise reflected in their publications and work. Teams of authors reflect a range of views, expertise and geographical representation.

The IPCC Assessment Reports have become standard climate change reference works that are used widely by policymakers, scientists, experts, and the public. The reports are intensely scrutinised and reflect the views of the majority of the international climate science community

The Fifth Assessment Report 2014

The IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) consists of three Working Groups who make the reports which are outlined below. It is noteworthy that these IPCC Assessment Reports, are one of the most highly scrutinised reports in the world. For example, more than 250 scientists have been involved as authors and review editors in writing the Working Group I report, and more than 600 additional experts contributed by providing extra specific knowledge or expertise in a given area. The report has also been reviewed by 1,089 experts and 38 governments. Over 9,200 scientific publications, a large suite of observational datasets from all regions of the world and over 2 million gigabytes of numerical data from climate model simulations formed the basis of the assessments. Australian authors have made a significant contribution to the AR5 Assessment Reports with 40 Australian authors engaged in the AR5.

Publication of the Fifth Assessment Report

Working Group I − The Physical Science Basis of Climate Change

27 September 2013

Working Group II – Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability

31 March 2014

Working Group III—Mitigation of Climate Change

13 April 2014

Synthesis Report

October/November 2014

Inter Academy Council (IAC) Review

After the release of the IPCCs Fourth Assessment Report, the UN Secretary General Mr Ban Ki-moon and the IPCC Chairman Mr Rajendra Pachauri requested that the InterAcademy Council (IAC), a multi-national organization of science academies, review the processes and procedures of the IPCC.

The IAC Review of the Processes and Procedures (IAC Review) made a number of recommendations to strengthen the IPCC management structure and to improve the transparency, consistency and review of IPCC reports and processes. Specifically, the IAC Review has sought to:

  • ensure that the IPCC reports continue to be of the highest scientific quality;
  • improve transparency in processes to build public confidence in IPCC products; and
  • enhance the robustness of IPCC governance.

IPCC members, including Australia, actively participated in implementing the IAC recommendations, all of which have now been completed. Therefore, the IPCC is the most authoritative source of information on climate change because it engages thousands of professionals, Universities and Governments with the expert resources; to work in a truly historical, global collaboration or partnership for a common purpose.

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